Celtic marks in “Ţara Haţegului”
Autor: Ferencz Iosif Vasile
1. The Celts from Transylvania
In the Second half of the IVth Century B.C. the Celts came in Transylvania (Pl.I) being archaeological documented until the first or the second quarter of IInd Century B.C1.
The historical sources we know today did not have written informations about the events we are talking about. That is why the informations obtain through archaeological researches are the only which can offer elements to reconstitute the image of the human communities from those times.
2. Celtic discoveries from Ţara Haţegului
In Haţeg area were found, in different circumstances, three Celtic objects (Pl.II). The first two are necklace (torques) (Pl. III, 2) and a helmet (Pl. III, 1, 4-5) both being made from bronze6. Still from the literature we have informations that inside the Bordu Mare cave, which is situated on Ohaba Ponor territory, commune Pui and which is well known because of the Paleolithic discoveries, was found a silver fibula (Pl.III, 3)7.
3. Chronological considerations
The use of the two artifacts mentioned was characteristic to a period of time contemporary with the first burials horizon from Pişcolt26. Taking into consideration the contexts in which they could appear they also could be contemporary with the second stage from Pişcolt25.
Concerning fibula, this type of artifact became fashionable later. Its use was possible to be contemporary with the beginning of the necropolis last horizon.
4. Geo-morphological considerations
The conditions offered by the entirely area were appreciated by the human communities from all the historical ages and they made that the whole area to be inhabitance or integrate in sphere of interest along time.
5. Cultural interferences and some historical interpretations
Placed in a contact area between more geographical zones, The Haţeg Depression has been along the times, a strategic area in establishing connections, either economical or by other nature. Its importance as a connection line between geographical and cultural area from different places seems to be underline by a funerary complex found and researched in Oltenia. It is about a woman grave, which was researched at Teleşti (jud. Gorj) and which has been dated in La Tene C1 and which importance for knowing that period was noticed just few years ago40.
The archaeological discoveries led to the identification of some warriors’ presence in this area at the beginning of Second Iron Age. Although among Celtic objects discovered in the area it could be observed the existence of another fibula dated in a later period of time, in the last stage of presence of this population in the area.
The small quantity of discoveries this being a result of the actual stage of researches, in our opinion, is still important to recreate the historical landscape of this age.